Primary Connections is a program of the Australian Academy of Science.

Terms Of Use

The Australian Academy of Science is reviewing the Terms of Use statement for this website. Please refer to the Copyright Notice here. For permission to reproduce any part of an Australian Academy of Science publication contact the Publications Manager at

The material published on the Primary Connections website is subject to the Copyright Act 1968 (Cth) and is owned by the Australian Academy of Science, or where indicated, by a party other than the Australian Academy of Science.

The Australian Academy of Science supports and encourages broad use of its material. Unless indicated, copyright material available on this website is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) licence (human-readable summary). The full licence is available at


This material is © Australian Academy of Science, 2022.

Except as permitted by the copyright law applicable to you, you may not reproduce or communicate any of the content on this website, including files downloadable from this website, without the written permission of the copyright owner. You may reproduce content from this website for your own personal private use, or, if you are a teacher, to assess its suitability for your teaching, providing in either case it is not later used for any other purpose. We may change these terms of use in the future. Check this page before re-using any content from this website. Part VB and 183 entitlements reserved. For more information about Part VB (educational use) and section 183 (government use) visit and Linking to this website is permitted provided that links are not created in such a way as to imply Australian Academy of Science endorsement. Please direct requests for further information or authorisation to the Publications Manager

Notice Of Trademark

The image of the Dome building Academy logo and the Primary Connections logo are registered trademarks of the Australian Academy of Science and may not be used without the prior written permission of the Academy.


While we have made every effort to ensure that the information on this site is current and accurate, we cannot guarantee either. Email us at with any corrections or suggestions. Reference to any commercial products, process or service does not necessarily imply its endorsement by the Australian Academy of Science. The views and opinions of authors expressed here do not necessarily reflect those of the Australian Academy of Science, and must not be used for advertising or product endorsement purposes. Online Code Of Conduct The Australian Academy of Science opportunities through its Primary Connections website and various social media channels to facilitate communication among individual members of the Primary Connections community defined as ‘users’ (including customers, members and staff), and between such users and AAS/Primary Connections.

Certain uses of these channels are inconsistent with this purpose, including, but not limited to:

  • posts that are unrelated to the current topic
  • activities that are illegal or fraudulent under Australian law
  • use that inaccurately implies endorsement, approval, or sponsorship by the Australian Academy of Science/Primary Connections
  • use that can be confused with official communications of the Australian Academy of Science/Primary Connections
  • activities that violate other users’ privacy, including the release of private personal information about others, such as name, address, or phone number
  • activities that further commercial or other personal financial gain
  • posting content that is offensive, hateful, threatening, libellous, or pornographic; incites violence; or contains nudity or graphic or gratuitous violence
  • harassment of any individual or entity.

The AAS reserves the right to deny access to its communication channels. AAS will deny access to those who violate the above standards or other applicable policies in these or similar practices. Participants on the Primary Connections site and in the various social media channels who misuse information and communication services may be removed from all online communities permanently. The AAS reserves the right to move or delete any postings.

Please contact us at for feedback or to report violations of this Code of Conduct.

Complaints Policy And Procedures

The Australian Academy of Science is committed to ensuring that teachers and customers are satisfied with the Primary Connections range of publications and training, or other aspects of our operations. We view complaints as opportunities for continuing improvement of Primary Connections.

All parties are encouraged wherever possible to resolve concerns or issues directly with the relevant Manager before it becomes a formal complaint. Senior Managers are to be available to assist complainants in an approachable and friendly manner.

Formal complaints should be submitted in writing to the Program Manager/s, Primary Connections. The Complainant is invited to include suggestions about how the complaint might be resolved. Receipt of the complaint will be acknowledged within five (5) working days.

Each complaint will be investigated by the Program Manager/s, who will advise the outcome and any actions to be taken within ten (10) working days of receipt of the complaint.

If the complainant is not satisfied with the outcome, Primary Connections will refer the complainant to the relevant external regulator for further advice.